Nanjing(南京), otherwise romanised as Nanking, also in the Nanjing dialect as Lanjin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People’s Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with 11 districts, an administrative area of 6,600 square km and a total population of 8,436,200 as of 2018. The inner area of Nanjing enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing City (南京城). Positioned in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of numerous Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949, and has thus long been a foremost centre of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world’s largest inland ports.
The city is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People’s Republic of China’s administrative assembly enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province. Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of “Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength” issued by the National Statistics Bureau, and second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta. It has also been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honour of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honour Award and National Civilized City. It is also recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. It has been one of the world’s largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu, one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317–589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421); and the Republic of China under the right wing Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War. The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The 20th century was a tumultuous time for Nanjing. Dr. Sun Yat-sen, known as the Father of Modern China, established the national seat of government in Nanjing, opening another window of wealth and cultural advancement. By 1937, growing tensions with Japan boiled over, when the Imperial Japanese Army invaded and captured the city in what is now known as the Nanjing Massacre (historically Nanking Massacre). Approximately 300,000 Nanking residents perished, and large swaths of the city were burned to the ground. The Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall was constructed in 1985, and its historical documents were inscribed into the UNESCO World Heritage Memory of the World register in 2015.
Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. It has many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum.
Today, Nanjing has developed into a major culture, with modern transportation technologies, arts and education hub of China, with universities and renowned institutions like the Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Library. In 1982, the Chinese government declared Nanjing a “historical and cultural city of China.” Its art and design communities are growing in global prestige, with recent additions like the Sifang Art Museum—a marvel of modern architecture which showcases world-class contemporary arts. Despite being a metropolis of more than 8 million, life moves at a more leisurely pace in Nanjing than in many Chinese cities; with its compelling contrast of ancient pagodas and sparkling skyscrapers, Nanjing’s feet are proudly planted in both its past and its future. The city has many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index. The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centres, according to the Nature Index, especially strong in the chemical sciences.
Nanjing boasts ultra-modern forms of transportations. It has diverse bus shuttles, 10 Metro Subway lines, four Railway Stations, two tram lines, an International Airport and seven regular ferry line.
Nanjing South Railway Station
A FEW TOURIST ATTRACTIONS IN NANJING
The Qinhuai River passing through Fuzimiao
Mochou Lake Park
UNIVERSITIES IN NANJING
- Nanjing University
- Southeast University
- Nanjing Medical University
- Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics
- Nanjing Agricultural University
- Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology
- Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications
- Hohai University
- China Pharmaceutical University
- Nanjing Forestry University
- Nanjing Institute of Technology
- Nanjing University of Finance & Economics
- Nanjing Xiaozhuang University
- Nanjing Audit University
- Jiangsu Second Normal University
- Nanjing Arts Institute
- Nanjing Forestry Police College
- Nanjing Tech University
- Nanjing Normal University
- Nanjing University of Science & Technology
- Sanjiang University
- Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine